How to easily start a Rice Farm business

How to easily start a Rice Farm business

Rice farming in Nigeria

Rice is one of the most consumable staple food in most part of africa and asia, countries like Nigeria, Ghana, Kenyan among others have a very rich rice Farming culture due to the high demand.

As a matter of fact there's the Normality in Eating rice Every Sunday in Nigeria, which means in Every week and Average Nigerian needs a rice.

Rice is just a seed of a grass species called Oryza sativa (or Oryza glaberrima for African rice). Rice (a monocot) is usually grown as an annual plant.

However in most tropical areas,rice plants can scale through as a perennial and can produce a ratoon crop which can take up to 30 years.

Although it depends on the variety and the soil fertility, nonetheless rice plant can grow from 3.3 feet up to 5.9 feet tall or even more.

The Leaves of the rice plants are usually 20-39 inches long and less than an inch broad ( 0.79-0.98 inch). The flowers which are very small are at the same time wind pollinated.

The flowers production is in a branched arching to pendulous inflorescence and it is 12-20 inches long. the edible seed which is known as a grain (caryopsis) is 0.20-0.47 inch long, and 0.079-0.118 inch thick.

Rice farming are addicted and harboured to countries and regions with low labor costs and excessive rainfall.

This is because rice farming needs ample water and requires a lot of efforts by the farmers. Despite the fact that rice can be farmed almost anywhere (even in difficult areas like mountain or steep hill) with integrated equipments and the use of water-controlling terrace system you can grow your rice at any remote area. Rice can be grown in Asia and certain west/east parts of Africa like Nigeria, Kenyan, Ghana etc.

Rice is which is the popular staple food can be used in different ways.

Local rice

How to start Farming Rice

The step required to start farming rice is very easy and simple, it takes less to start your rice farm even if you are a beginner.

Although Rice can be grown in various types of soil and land area however requires a moderate amount of water.

Below are the steps required to begin your rice farming business beginning from the planting method to the harvesting.

Ascertain Your Location

Before you can start your rice farming business you need to make sure you secure a very good location because rice is a very versatile seed and can be planted on different kinds of soil with low permeability and pH ranging from 5.0 to 9.5 as the rice plants needs a full sun, hence while selecting your land for your rice Farming you need to ascertain the positioning and sun level in that area.

You can decide to plant your rice seed anywhere as long as there's moderate water in the environment, the plants can be positioned through integration form of Farming and other rainfed method although rice can as well survive flooding and some erosion.

Below are some of the healthy environmental recommendation for your rice farming.

1: Coastal wetland

2: Deep water or floating rice

3: Lowland: irrigated (rice is grown in both the wet season and the dry season)the lowland which is drought prone, can favor medium depth 

4: Upland rice: Upland rice is a type of rice which is planted and grown on dry soil instead on a flooded rice paddies. It is sometimes also called dry rice

Preparation of Soil for Farming

While Rice farming can be achievable in almost anywhere it is objectively has some preference which includes Sandy loam, loamy sand, silty loam,clay loams, silty, clayey loam soils with low permeability,are all free of sodicity and are considered the best for rice farming.

Regardless the type of land you choose for your rice ensure that the land is in good condition before you start planting your rice.

The Land preparation for rice farming includes plowing and harrowing which means to ’till’ or dig-up, mix and level the soil.

Tillaga does not only helps with weed control but it also gives access to the seeds to be planted at the right depth, thereafter you have to level the surface for reducing the amount of water overused by uneven pockets of too-deep water or exposed soil.

A Semi-dry, dry and wet systems are usually followed in rice farming. While the dry and semi-dry systems of rice farming depends on rains, they generally do not have supplementary irrigation facilities.

That of the wet rice farming system the rice crops is grown with average water supply which may come from irrigated system or rainfalls.

Prepared rice

Below are more emphasies regarding that. 

Dry & Semi-Dry System

In this type of rice Farming there's a need for detailed and analyses which will be used to prepare the field by giving access to several ploughings and harrowing. ploughing and harrowing add a good amount of organic contents into it. You also add organic contents into the soil for at least 2-4 weeks before sowing or planting.

Wet System

For that of the wet systems, make sure you plough the field thoroughly and puddle with 3-5 cm of standing water within the field. The ideal depth of puddling is found to be between 10 cm in clay soils, clay-loamy soils. Ensure to Level the land after puddling, and this will process an effective and uniform distribution of water and fertilizers.

If you want to go into commercial rice farming business, ensure to apply some chemical fertilizer for generating maximum yield. Needless to say that the exact amount of fertilizers can vary from place to place. On average, you will have to apply around 50 kg Nitrogen, 12 kg Phosphorus and 12 kg Potash. Remember to Conduct a soil test before applying chemical fertilizers on it. And if possible you can consult any agriculture specialist near you for having good recommendation.

Climate Requirements for Rice Farming

The Rice plants can be planted in a wide variety of any climatic conditions. They can also be planted under widely varying conditions of altitude, and can be cultivated as high as 3000 meter above the sea level.

A relatively hot and humid climatic conditions are recommended for a good rice farming.

Rice can be grown anywhere as long as there is enough water supply and consistent sunshine including high humid condition 

The Temperature should be between 16 °C and 30 °C is recommended best for rice farming.

Best Time for Rice Farming

You can grow your rice plant anytime of the season as the seers germinate the plants grows well with an average temperature of 16 °C to 30 °C ( plants can also survive as high as 40 °C).

Choose a Variety

There are so many varieties of rice available throughout the world.

The Rice varieties and types are divided into different categories which depends on culinary preferences, characteristics and also vary regionally.

The region Location also determines, the availability and the varieties which are being developed continuously in those region.

When it comes ti regional rice varieties, there are countless rice varieties available. And Each of these varieties can be found in some specific region. For example 'Gadai Lashkari, Katari Bhog, Miniket, Mou Beruin,Kalo Beruin, Khato Dosh, Lapha, Balam, Bashmoti, Bina, Chinigura, Digha, Moulata, Pajam and Thakur Bhog are some Bangladeshi rice variety. Bhut Muri, Hansraj, Dubrej, Hay Shrirama, Kamini, Patna and Laxmi Bhog are just some of the Indian rice varieties.

When it comes to culinary preferences, the varieties of rice are occasionally classified as long, medium and short grained.

For the long grain rice they tend to remain intact after cooking while the medium grain rice converts to a sticky rice and is normally used for sweet dishes.

Finally, the short-grain rice is mostly used for rice pudding. And within these 3 varieties there are several cultivars available around the world.

There are several other varieties of hybrid ride which are extremely productive however it depends on the regional areas and it is advisable to select a variety based on the availability of the ones in your area.

Make sure to contact a private seedlings agency for more enquires.

Purchase Seeds

After you must have choose your desired variety from your local suppliers you can head to your planting, ensure to select based on good quality, high yielding and disease free seeds.

Seeds per Acre

The Exact amount of seeds will depend on the rice varieties and the method you are going to choose for your rice farming.

In the general ric farming terms, 10-12 kg seeds is enough for direct sowing, and 25-30 kg is enough for transplanting method.


The rice plant can be grown in two different ways. Which includes the direct seeding or by transplanting. It doesn't matter the exact system you choose, only ensure you treat the seeds by fungicide/insecticide before sowing.

Direct Sowing

The direct seeding system, there's need to broadcast dry seed or pre-germinated seeds by using your hand or using any machine. For the dry seeds which are manually broadcasted into the soil surface in rainfed and deepwater ecosystems, are incorporated either by ploughing or by harrowing when the soil is still dry. But the seeds are usually pre-germinated relating to broadcasting in the irrigated areas. This makes it a very easy method and doesn't need much labor.


The Transplanting is the most popular rice planting method in some parts of africa. This system which requires the seedlings to be grown in a prepared seedbed and then transplanted to the main wet field. The transplanting system needs less seed and it is an effective way of controlling weeds. Transplanting method also involves more labor, however we now have machines available for planting the transplants which reduces the cost of labor.


You have to care for your rice just the same way you care for your livestocks and animals so at the end of the season you can have an healthy harvest which will attract customers easily. 

Below are more details on how to care for your rice farm.


Always Apply fertilizers if you want to get a maximum yield however don't apply all the chemical fertilizers at once while preparing the soil, only apply all the organic fertilizer when preparing the soil then the remaining fertilizer can be applied twice within 30days interval.


Cultivated rice can be very sensitive to water shortages however Maintaining a flooded condition in the field is advisable just to make sure there is sufficient water during the growth period (do this especially for lowland rice farming).while for rainfed rice farming situation, you don’t have to worry much because nature will do the rest. But in case of dry or semi-dry conditions, you will have to water the field consistently and Remember, you must have to make sure the field flooded for up to 2 weeks after transplanting.

Pests and Diseases

Rice plants are vulnerable to some pests and diseases, just like every other commercial crops.

The rice plant which is a popular dish by many also have many 'enemies’ in the farm which includes rodents, harmful insects, viruses and diseases.

When you understand the interactions among pests, natural enemies, host plants, other organisms, and the environment then farmers can easily determine the kind of pest management to apply.


This Depends on the variety which the rice plants gets to although maturity is occasionally between 105 to 150 days after crop establishment.

You can start your harvest when the moisture content in the grain reduces to 20%-25%.

The Rice harvesting activities includes cutting, stacking, handling, threshing, cleaning and hauling.

You can do all your harvesting activities either by hand or by using a machine. Don't forget that a good harvesting methods help to ensure a high level of grain yield and minimize grain damage and deterioration.

Manual Harvesting

The Manual harvesting involves cutting the rice crop with simple hand tools such as sickles and knives. Manual harvest is good and greatly effective when a crop has lodged or fallen over nonetheless the manual harvesting is also labor intensive and in most cases expensive to use.

Mechanical Harvesting

The Mechanical harvesting which is very easy and less labor intensive is done using reapers or combine harvesters. Mechanical harvesting isn't a common technique due to the cost of the machinery.


Your Total yield depends on factors such as the varieties, soil type, cultivation method, farm management practices etc.

The average yield expectation is between 1500 to 2000 kg per acre.

Rice Nutrition

The Rice grain has a very nice nutrition for the human system and caloric intake 


Rice being the most consumable staple food not just in africa but all over the world According to Research is composed of 3% protein, 28% carbohydrates, 68% water and negligible amount of fat

Which makes it a great choice for farmers, as there is always a market value for rice and there is no time rice gets a low demand in africa.

You can easily start your small rice farm with any budget as long as you have a good remote area then you can achieve great returns in the rice farming business, I hope this article has been able to answer atleast 80% of your questions regarding the rice farming research.

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